Objectives for Human Anatomy and Physiology
Total scored items on ATI TEAS: 18 questions out of 44
Table of Contents
Demonstrate Knowledge of the General Orientation of Human Anatomy
- Cephalic – head
- Cranial- skull
- Facial – face
- Frontal – forehead
- Occipital – base of the skull
- Temporal – temple
- Orbital or ocular – eye
- Otic – ear
- Buccal – cheek
- Nasal – nose
- Oral – mouth
- Mental – chin
- Cervical – neck
- Sternal – breastbone
- Thoracic – chest
- Mammary- breast
- Acromial – shoulder
- Scapular – shoulder blade
- Vertebral – spinal column
- Lumbar – lower back
- Dorsal – back
- Axillary – Armpit
- Brachial – Arm
- Antecubital – front of the elbow
- Olecranal or cubital – back of the elbow
- Antebrachial – forearm
- Carpal – wrist
- Palmar – palm
- Pollex – thumb
- Dorsum – back of the hand
- Manual – hand
- Digital or phalangeal – fingers
- Abdominal – abdomen
- Umbilical – naval
- Coxa – hip
- Sacral – between the hips
- Coccygeal – tailbone
- Gluteal – buttock
- Pelvic – pelvis
- Pubic – pubis
- Perineal – area between anus and external genitals
- Inguinal – groin
- Femoral – thigh
- Patella – front of the knee
- Popliteal – back of the knee
- Crural – shin
- Sural – calf
- Pedal – foot
- Tarsal – ankle
- Digital of phalangeal – toe
- Pedal – foot
- Plantar – sole of the foot
- Calcaneal – heel
- Tarsal – ankle
- Dorsum – top of the foot
- Hallux – the great toe
Anatomical Position and Anatomical Direction
- Anterior (toward the front) – For example, the kneecap is on the anterior side of the leg.
- Posterior (toward the back) – For example, the shoulder blades are located on the posterior side of the body.
- Superior (toward the head) – For example, the hand is part of the superior extremity.
- Inferior (toward the feet) – For example, the foot is part of the inferior extremity.
- Medial (toward the midline) – For example, the chest is medial to the arm.
- Lateral (away from the midline) – For example, the little toe is lateral to the big toe on the same foot.
- Proximal (closer to the trunk of the body) – For example, the proximal end of the femur joins the pelvic bone.
- Distal (farther from the trunk of the body) – For example, the hand is distal to the shoulder.
- A sagittal plane or median is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left halves.
- A frontal plane or coronal is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) halves.
- A transverse plane or cross-section is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) halves.
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory Systems
Structure of the Respiratory System
- The nose is the external opening of the respiratory system.
- The nostrils lead into the nasal cavity, which is divided into two sections by the septum.
- The mouth and throat are also part of the respiratory system.
- The throat, or pharynx, is a tube that starts behind the nose and goes down to the esophagus.
- The larynx, or voice box, is located at the top of the trachea.
- The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that goes from the larynx to the bronchi.
- The bronchi are the two main tubes that lead from the trachea to the lungs.
- The bronchioles are the smaller tubes that branch off from the bronchi and lead to the alveoli.
- The alveoli are tiny sacs where gas exchange takes place. These are small, single-cell structures that group together in clusters like grapes.
- The right lung is divided into three sections, while the left lung is divided into two sections. The left lung allows for more space to house the heart.
The Function of the Respiratory System
Factors that Affect the Respiratory System
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular Systems
Structure of the Cardiovascular System
- The heart has four chambers: the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle.
- The right atrium and left ventricle are on the right side of the heart, while the left atrium and right ventricle are on the left side.
- The septum is a wall that separates the right and left sides of the heart.
- Arteries carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood away from the heart, while veins carry oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood back to the heart.
- Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect the arteries and veins.
- Blood is a liquid that carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body and carbon dioxide and wastes away from the cells.
- The systole is the contraction of the heart, while the diastole is the relaxation of the heart.
- During the systole, blood is pumped out of the heart and into the arteries. The atrioventricular (mitral and tricuspid) valves close causing the “lub” sound.
- During the diastole, blood flows into the heart and fills the chambers. The semilunar (aortic and pulmonic) valves cause the “dub” sound.
Blood Flow Through the Cardiovascular System
Functions of the Cardiovascular System
- The heart pumps blood through the arteries to the cells of the body.
- Oxygen and nutrients are delivered to the cells, and carbon dioxide and wastes are removed.
- Blood pressure is the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries.
- If the blood pressure is too high, it can damage the arteries.
- If the blood pressure is too low, it can cause problems with blood flow.
- When the body temperature rises, the blood vessels dilate (widen) to allow heat to escape from the body.
- When the body temperature drops, the blood vessels constrict (narrow) to prevent heat from escaping from the body.
- A bicarbonate buffer system helps maintain acid by removing excess hydrogen ions from the blood.
- Transporting hormones around the body
- Helping to fight infections
- Aiding in the digestion of food
- Assisting in the repair of damaged tissue
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System
Structure of the Digestive System
- Digestion begins in the mouth where you chew and mechanical digestion (physical breakdown) of food occurs. Mucus in saliva lubricates the food and enzymes such as amylase and lipase initiate the chemical digestion of starches and lipids.
- A bolus of food is swallowed and travels through the pharynx into the esophagus.
- Peristalsis (contractions of muscles) occurs in the esophagus to move the food into the stomach.
- The stomach is a J-shaped sac that stores food, initiates chemical digestion with enzymes, and mixes the food.
- Gastric acid kills bacteria, denatures proteins, and activates digestive enzymes.
- The small intestine is the main site of digestion and absorption. It is composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
- The small intestine is coiled and has a series of foldings that increase the surface area for absorption.
- The large intestine is composed of the cecum, colon, and rectum.
- The large intestine absorbs water, electrolytes, and vitamins produced by enteric bacteria.
- The rectum is the final section of the GI tract and stores feces until they are eliminated through defecation.
Enzyme and Hormones Involved in Digestion
- Gastrin: This hormone is produced by the stomach and stimulates the production of stomach acid.
- Cholecystokinin (CCK): This hormone is produced by the small intestine and stimulates the release of enzymes from the pancreas and bile from the liver.
- Secretin: This hormone is produced by the small intestine and stimulates the production of bicarbonate by the pancreas.
- Insulin: This hormone is produced by the pancreas and helps to regulate blood sugar levels.
- Glucagon: This hormone is produced by the pancreas and helps to release glucose from the liver.
- Bile: This fluid is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile breaks down fats in the small intestine.
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System
Divisions of the Nervous System
- The CNS is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. This is the central command center where all communication and actions occur in the body.
- The PNS is composed of the nerves that branch off from the spinal cord and innervate the body. This system sends the signals by the brain to the targeted locations.
- The nervous system is responsible for transmitting signals between the body and the brain.
Structure of the Neuron
- The cell body contains the nucleus and other organelles.
- Dendrites are short, branch-like extensions that generated graded electrical impulses.
- The axon is a long extension that transmits the signals to other neurons.
- At the end of the axon are the terminal buttons which release neurotransmitters called the axon terminal.
- Myelin sheath is a white, fatty substance that covers the axon and helps to increase the speed of nerve impulses.
- Synapse is the space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron.
The Function of the Neuron
- The autonomic nervous system is responsible for involuntary actions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.
- The somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary actions such as the movement of the limbs.
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Muscular System
Types of Muscle Tissues
- Skeletal muscle is attached to bones and is responsible for the movement of the body. These muscles are striated and very strong. This muscle is the only voluntary tissue in the body.
- Cardiac muscle is found in the heart and pumps blood throughout the body. These muscles are also striated. Cardiac muscle tissue cannot be consciously controlled making the muscle involuntary.
- Smooth muscle is found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. These muscles are not striated and involuntary as they cannot be controlled consciously. These muscles are the weakest of all off muscle tissues.
The Function of Muscle Tissues
Muscles are responsible for the movement of the body. They generate force by contracting and produce movement by moving the bones to which they are attached. There are over 700 named muscles in the body and makeup approximately half of the total body weight.
Nerves Control Muscles In the Nervous System
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
Structures of Male Reproductive System
- The testes are a pair of oval-shaped organs that produce sperm and testosterone.
- The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that stores and transports sperm.
- The vas deferens is a long, thin tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles.
- The seminal vesicles are a pair of sac-like structures that produce a fluid that nourishes the sperm.
- The prostate gland is a small, round organ that produces a fluid that helps to transport the sperm.
- The penis is a long, cylindrical organ that carries urine and sperm out of the body.
Structures of Female Reproductive System
- The ovaries are a pair of small, oval-shaped organs that produce eggs and hormones.
- The fallopian tubes are a pair of long, thin tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus.
- The uterus is a pear-shaped organ that houses and protects a developing fetus.
- The vagina is a long, cylindrical organ that carries blood and mucosal tissue from the uterus during a women’s monthly period; provides a passageway for intercourse and sperm until it is distributed to the uterus; and also allows passage for vaginal childbirth.
- The vulva is the external female genitalia that includes the labia, clitoris, and urethra.
Relationship between the Reproductive System and Endocrine System
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is produced in the hypothalamus and stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland.
- The follicle-stimulating hormone helps to stimulate the growth of eggs in the ovaries and control the menstrual cycle.
- Luteinizing hormone helps to trigger ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovary.
- Testosterone is a hormone produced by the testes that help to produce sperm and develop male characteristics. Unlike in females, sperm is not cyclical like eggs and are constantly produced and matured.
- Estrogen is a hormone produced by the ovaries that helps to develop female characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle.
Describe the Anatomy and Physiology of the Integumentary
Structure of the Integumentary System
- The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that provides a waterproof barrier and protects the body from infection.
- The dermis is the middle layer of skin that contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
- The subcutaneous / hypodermis is the innermost layer of skin that consists of fat and connective tissue.