Pharmacokinetics | Pharmacology NCLEX & Nursing School Exams Like A Boss

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Pharmacokinetics – Notes

Pharmacokinetics – Slides





PHARMACOKINETICS NCLEX QUIZ QUESTIONS

Question 1: The provider is discussing drug absorption with a nursing student. The provider asks what route has the fastest absorption rate. Which is the correct response?

  1. Intravenous Route
  2. Intramuscular Route
  3. Oral Route

 

Question 2: Of the options listed, which administration would result in the fastest absorption?

  1. Sublingual
  2. Oral
  3. Rectal
  4. Transdermal

 

Question 3: What components are considered processes under pharmacokinetics? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Medication is excreted
  2. Medication dissolves in stomach acid
  3. Medication enters arterial circulation
  4. Medication reaches target organs
  5. Medication interacts with receptors

 

Question 4: What patient populations require dose adjustments for medications due to inadequate processing of medications? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Endocarditis
  2. Hypothyroidism
  3. Stroke
  4. Kidney Failure
  5. Liver Disease

 

Question 5: A nurse receives report from the Emergency Department regarding a patient receiving aminoglycosides. Upon reviewing the orders, the nurse sees an order to obtain a trough level prior to the next administration. Trough levels are used to confirm satisfactory clearance of the following:

  1. Gastric
  2. Liver
  3. Renal
  4. Exhalation

 

Question 6: A unit practice council is review medication pharmacokinetics. What is not part of the medication’s pharmacokinetics? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Biological barrier of an organ
  2. Method of administration of the drug
  3. Liver and kidneys ability to metabolize and excrete from the body
  4. Appearance of medication inside bottle

 

Question 7: Passive absorption of medications occur by ______________.

  1. Enzyme transport
  2. Protein transport
  3. Active Transport
  4. Diffusion

 

Question 8: Some medications experience the first-pass metabolism phenomenon, what route is the best for this phenomenon?

  1. Rectal
  2. Oral
  3. Liquid
  4. Sublingual

 

Question 9: Upon discharge, the nurse notes that his or her patient is prescribed a topical glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoid cream has best absorption in the following areas ___________. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Back
  2. Ears
  3. Face
  4. Axilla
  5. Feet

 

Question 10: A nurse provided aluminum/magnesium antacid for gastritis to his or her patient. To encourage the greatest absorption, what is the best timeframe for administration. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

 

  1. Bedtime
  2. One hour prior to meals
  3. One hour after meals
  4. 5 minutes after meals
  5. In the morning upon awaking




PHARMACOKINETICS NCLEX QUIZ ANSWERS

Question 1: The provider is discussing drug absorption with a nursing student. The provider asks what route has the fastest absorption rate. Which is the correct response?

  1. Intravenous Route
  2. Intramuscular Route
  3. Oral Route

The intravenous route is the fastest route of those options listed as it goes into the venous circulation immediately. The intramuscular route takes longer than intravenous administration because the medication does not immediately enter into the bloodstream. The oral route takes the longest due to its route of absorption: GI Tract ® Venous Circulation ® Cardiac Circulation ® Pulmonary Circulation ® Cardiac Circulation ® Arterial Circulation.

Question 2: Of the options listed, which administration would result in the fastest absorption?

  1. Sublingual
  2. Oral
  3. Rectal
  4. Transdermal

Sublingual administration has the fastest rate of absorption among the options listed. Medications pass rapidly through the mucosal membrane and the bloodstream in 5 minutes or less.  Oral medication takes 30 minutes to an hour for effect, rectal medication takes between 5 to 30 minutes for effect, and transdermal mediations take hours to days for effect.

Question 3: What components are considered processes under pharmacokinetics? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Medication is excreted
  2. Medication dissolves in stomach acid
  3. Medication enters arterial circulation
  4. Medication reaches target organs
  5. Medication interacts with receptors

The Four components of Pharmacokinetics are Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion. Answer 1 refers to excretion, answer 3 refers to absorption, and answer 4 refers to distribution.

Question 4: What patient populations require dose adjustments for medications due to inadequate processing of medications? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Endocarditis
  2. Hypothyroidism
  3. Stroke
  4. Kidney Failure
  5. Liver Disease

Kidney Failure and Liver Disease. Kidney Failure patients struggle to excrete the medications through urine and may require lower doses to avoid toxicity. Liver Disease patients struggle with both excretion and metabolism. Patients will require dose adjustments to maintain therapeutic medication levels.

Question 5: A nurse receives report from the Emergency Department regarding a patient receiving aminoglycosides. Upon reviewing the orders, the nurse sees an order to obtain a trough level prior to the next administration. Trough levels are used to confirm satisfactory clearance of the following:

  1. Gastric
  2. Liver
  3. Renal
  4. Exhalation

Trough levels assess for renal medication clearance. Some medications like aminoglycosides cause nephrotoxicity.

Question 6: A unit practice council is review medication pharmacokinetics. What is not part of the medication’s pharmacokinetics? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Biological barrier of an organ
  2. Method of administration of the drug
  3. Liver and kidneys ability to metabolize and excrete from the body
  4. Appearance of medication inside bottle

The Four components of Pharmacokinetics are Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion. Biological barriers impact the body’s ability to influence medications. The live effects the metabolism and excretion portion of pharmacokinetics. The route is not part of pharmacokinetics and neither is appearance.

Question 7: Passive absorption of medications occur by ______________.

  1. Enzyme transport
  2. Protein transport
  3. Active Transport
  4. Diffusion

Diffusion uses passive absorption between membranes to provide medication to target organs. All other options require active absorption.

Question 8: Some medications experience the first-pass metabolism phenomenon, what route is the best for this phenomenon?

  1. Rectal
  2. Oral
  3. Liquid
  4. Sublingual

Oral medication and liquid medication administration require absorption in the stomach and would experience the first-pass metabolism phenomenon. Rectal and Sublingual do not require absorption in the stomach and would not be the best option for this phenomenon.  

Question 9: Upon discharge, the nurse notes that his or her patient is prescribed a topical glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoid cream has best absorption in the following areas ___________. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

  1. Back
  2. Ears
  3. Face
  4. Axilla
  5. Feet

Glucocorticoid creams have greatest effects on thin, permeable skin like the axilla and face. Feet, ears, and back are not generally permeable for topical medications.

Question: A nurse provided aluminum/magnesium antacid for gastritis to his or her patient. To encourage the greatest absorption, what is the best timeframe for administration. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

 

  1. Bedtime
  2. One hour prior to meals
  3. One hour after meals
  4. 5 minutes after meals
  5. In the morning upon awaking

Aluminum/magnesium antacids oxidize with gastric acid to neutralize its effects. Medications should be given one hour prior to meals, one hour after meals, and at bedtime. Gastric acid levels are not high in the morning and medication should not be given on a full stomach so 5 minutes after meals is not the correct answer.