ATI TEAS GUIDE TO SCIENCE | THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Bodily Organs and Systems – The Nervous System

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QUIZ QUESTIONS LISTED AT END OF REVIEW

Questions related to the Bodily Organs and Systems will test your knowledge of structures and functions within the ten human organ systems that are essential to life. You may also be tested on vocabulary terms related to your understanding of anatomy. You must understand these vital body systems when caring for patient’s co-morbidities.

Please note that the ATI TEAS will only cover basic knowledge of bodily organs and systems. More in-depth knowledge will be covered in our Anatomy and Physiology Series.

Let’s get started on understanding how the bodily organs and systems are important on the ATI TEAS.




 

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system coordinates the tasks of the other system of the body and consists of the brains, spinal cord, and nerves. It regulates the body by responding to different stimuli (changes that occur both inside and outside of the body). The nervous system is also the source of all mental activity, such as learning and thought.

The nervous system is divided into two main subparts

  • Central Nervous System (CNS) contains the brain and spinal cord, which read information and decide on a correct response.
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of nerves that transmit messages to and from the CNS.

The Peripheral Nervous System can be divided even further into

  • Somatic system responds to outside changes
    • Examples are blinking reflex, knee jerk reflex, and gag reflex
  • Autonomic system responds and regulates to internal changes
    • Examples are pulse rate, blood flow, and pupil dilation/constriction

Both the somatic and autonomic system contain two types of neurons (special cells that receive and transmit chemical signals to the brain).

  • Afferent or sensory neurons convey information from receptors in the body to the CNS.
  • Efferent or motor neurons bring information from the CNS back to the appropriate effectors in the body.
  • Best way to remember afferent vs efferent
    • Afferent = arrives
    • Efferent = exits

The neuron consists of a main cell body or soma, the center of which is the nucleus. Stemming off the cell body are dendrites, which receive neural impulses and convey them to the cell body. After receiving this information, an axon will transmit the message to another neuron. The axon is covered by a myelin sheath, which acts as an insulator to allow electrical impulses to transmit into the cell.