ATI TEAS GUIDE TO READING | UNDERSTANDING MAKING INFERENCES, DRAWING CONCLUSIONS, FACTS, OPINIONS, VIEWS, TONES, AND EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT

UNDERSTANDING MAKING INFERENCES AND DRAWING CONCLUSIONS

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QUIZ QUESTIONS LISTED AT END OF REVIEW

Understanding inference questions ask about logical implications or deductions that are drawn from the passage. They usually contain the following phrases: (1) “What does the author imply about ____?” (2) “What can be inferred about ____?” Additional phrases can be “most likely” and “probably.” A very common inference question is “Based on the passage, which of the following is true?”

The correct answer to these questions must be logically implied from the passage. The correct answer will not be a detail found in the passage and will never be found directly in the passage.

Example 1

Close at hand is a bridge over the River Thames, an admirable vantage ground for us to make a survey. The river flows beneath; barges pass, laden with timber, bursting with corn; there on one side are the domes and spires of the city; on the other, Westminster and the Houses of Parliament. It is a place to stand on by the house, dreaming. But not now. Now we are pressed for time. Now we are here to consider facts; now we must fix our eyes upon the procession – the procession of the sons of educated men.

According to the passage, Woolf chooses the setting of the bridge because it

  1. Is conducive to a mood of fanciful reflection
  2. Provides a good view of the procession of the sons of educated men
  3. Is within sight of historic episodes to which she alludes
  4. Is symbolic of the legacy of past and present sons of educated men

The correct answer is B. You must deduce from the information given. Normally we’d be on the bridge to dream and have fanciful reflection, but that’s not the case now. Now we have to do something else while standing of the bridge. What is that something else? Fixing our eyes on the procession of the sons of educated men.

Drawing conclusion questions require the same logic as inference questions, except the focus is on the overall conclusion that can be made from the passage. These questions can ask about the “overall idea” implied in a selection versus the details.

Example 1

Julio and his father has been looking forward to their fishing trip for weeks. They didn’t take much food with them on the trip. When they started fishing they were quickly approached by a ranger. He asked Julio’s father if he had obtained a fishing license to fish. Julio’s father reached into this wallet then had a terrified look on his face. Julio was disappointed that night as he ate dinner.

Why did Julio and his father not take much food with them on the trip?

  1. They didn’t want to eat too much
  2. They didn’t have any food at their home
  3. They were planning on eating the fish they caught
  4. They didn’t like to eat fish

The correct answer is C. The passage draws a conclusion that had Julio and his father caught fish during their trip, then they would have been eating fish that night for dinner.




 

UNDERSTANDING FACT VS OPINION

What’s the difference between facts versus onion questions.

  • Fact is determined by a portion of text based on factual information and can be verified. Example: As of 2008, there are 3.1 million registered nurses.
  • Opinion is determined by the author’s beliefs and not facts. Example: I love small dogs.
  • Bias is a personal preference that may interfere with the author’s ability to be objective. Example: the author’s likes vs dislikes. If someone is biased toward women, they might display that bias by hiring a man over a more-qualified woman.
    • Persuasive texts will show bias
  • Stereotype is a generalization about a group. Example: a group of individuals whom all have a certain characteristic. Example: Senior citizens are bad drivers.

Example 1

CPR, also known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is the American Heart Association’s started for attempting to save someone’s life. It is a method used when a patient’s heart has stopped beating.

Most all approaches of CPR begin with resuscitation efforts via chest compressions. In order to perform chest compressions, the rescuer begins by placing both hands flat on the sternum of the patient’s chest and begins pushing down consistently and firmly at equal intervals. Compressions are counted with an unofficial recommendation of 100 chest compressions per minute.

For those trained in CPR, one of the best ways to remember the order in which steps should be administered is to use the CAB mnemonic. CAB stands for Circulation, Airway, and Breathing. The goal is to aid an unresponsive person to start breathing on their own.

The author states that “one of the best ways to remember the order in which steps should be administered is to use the CAB mnemonic.” This statement best described by which of the following?

  1. It is a fact, because CAB is a mnemonic and easy to remember
  2. It is an opinion, because the author is not able to determine what is “best” for all people
  3. It Is face, because there is empirical research to prove the statement
  4. It is an opinion, because the author introduces it with the “in my opinion” phrase

The correct answer is B. While both B and D identify the passage as an opinion, only B is correct. The author does not use the “in my opinion” phrase.

Example 2

Sound waves consist of a fundamental overtone and followed by a series of sequential overtones. The audience perceives sound waves through several different variables including, but not limited to: (1) physical location in environment, (2) position of the stage to audience location, and (3) height of the ceiling.

The author states that “sound waves consist of a fundamental overtone and followed by a series of sequential overtones.” This statement can be seen as the following?

  1. The passage is a face, because the sentence after provide evidence and support for it’s veracity.
  2. The passage is an opinion, because the author is not a scientist.
  3. The passage is a fact, because the statement can be supported with scientific data and does not reflect a subjective viewpoint about sound.
  4. The passage is an opinion, because it reveals the author’s feelings about sound.

The correct answer is C. Both A and C identify the statement as fact, but only answer C give the correct support.

UNDERSTANDING POINT OF VIEW, TONE, AND EVALUATING AN ARGUMENT

Point of view refers to how the author feels about the passage and the specific opinions he or she holds.

How to determine point of view

  • Is the passage a narrative, informational, or persuasive passage?
  • Is the passage based on verifiable facts or the author’s opinion?

Example

As a child, I remember the hot summer evenings spent outside with my parents, naming the birds we heard but could not see. In the dying light, our perception was limited to only one sense—our hearing. From tree to tree echoed a symphony of calls: Was that a blue jay? A Baltimore oriole? Or that chameleon of birds, the mockingbird? As I tested my fledgling ear I turned to my father for reassurance. Behind his discerning eyes lay something that I wouldn’t be able to identify until many decades later. Was it…. “Dinner is ready!” Mother called. Our Audubon expedition would have to be continued another day.

The point of view from which this passage is told is best described as:

  1. A young child communicating his emotions and perspectives
  2. A third person narrator who is aware of every character’s emotions
  3. An adult reflective appreciatively on his youth
  4. A third person narrator who tells the story through their own perspectives

The correct answer is C.

Tone refers to the author’s attitude toward a subject and the mood of the passage. For example, Jennifer runs angerly towards the horizon versus Jennifer skips happily towards the horizon. In both examples, Jennifer is heading towards the horizon, but the effect is changed by different word choices.

Example 1

But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we’ve come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children.

What was the tone of the “I have a dream” speech by Martin Luther King Jr?

  1. Outraged and angry
  2. Violent and agitated
  3. Inspired and Hopeful

The correct answer is C.

Evaluating an agreement within a passage is defined as determining the point an author is trying to make. The claims an author makes must have evidence to back them up.

Example 1

Determine what would strengthen Jennifer’s argument.

Jennifer: The new homeowner’s association regulates requires the community to install a new sprinkler system. This will cost the average home owner $1,000 and could increase property taxes. The new regulation will cause detrimental financial hardships to the average homeowner.

  1. Most homeowners in the neighborhood do not have the money to install the sprinkler system
  2. It would take one year for the money spent on the installation of the sprinkler system to reflect lower water bills
  3. The money to install the new sprinkler system is more than the average monthly water bill
  4. The money saved from lower water bills makes up for the increase in property taxes

The correct answer is A. This statement strengthens Jennifer’s argument that the high initial costs are too high.

ATI TEAS READING QUIZ REVIEW THREE

Quiz for ATI TEAS Reading Part Three: Making inferences, Drawing conclusions, Facts, Opinions, Views, Tones, and Evaluating an Argument