ATI TEAS GUIDE TO READING | TEXT STRUCTURES, WRITING STYLES, RHETORICAL INTENT

ATI TEAS Guide to Reading: Reading is broken down into two categories: paragraph and passage comprehension, and source information comprehension.

  • Paragraph and passage comprehension questions are supplemented by a single paragraph or entire passage. This category tests your ability to understand the text you were provided.
  • Source information comprehension questions are supplemented by figures, maps, graphs, and excerpts from additional resources, such as directions and lists.

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QUIZ QUESTIONS

 

UNDERSTANDING TEXT STRUCTURES AND WRITING STYLES

Written passages can be either one of four types of writing: expository, narrative, persuasive, and technical.

  • Expository writing describes a topic and explains its features
  • Narrative writing portrays a series of events
  • Persuasive writing challenges to convince the audience with a particular point of view
  • Technical writing portrays complex or difficult subject matter in a particular writing with accuracy

EXAMPLES OF WRITING SYTLES

Example 1

Attending college can be expensive. First, college tuition, room, and housing can cost between $2,000 to over $10,000 per semester. Additional expenses make attending college even more expensive. For example, textbooks can cost between $100 to $1,000 per semester. Second, materials can also become expensive. Paper, writing utensils, notebooks, and other supplies often cost more at the college bookstore than online or through retail store. For instance, a package of paper can cost $2 at a retail store versus $5 at a college bookstore. Lastly, there are all kinds of special fees added onto the bill during registration. A college attendee might have to pay $50 fee for college insurance fee, $20 fee for activity/school activity fee, $15 fee for the student government association, and $100 fee for parking. There are additional fees if the attendee decides to add or drop classes. The fees required can make college seem never ending.

What is the above passage writing style?

  1. Narrative
  2. Persuasive
  3. Technical
  4. Expository

The correct answer is D. The passage is an example of expository writing. The passage describes a subject and continues by explaining its features. The topic is college expenses are expensive. The passage explains why college expenses are so high by listing (1) fees for college, tuition, room, and housing; (2) expenses for materials; and (3) fees for registration for classes.

Choice A is incorrect because narrative writing tells a story or relates a series of events.

Choice B is incorrect because persuasive writing challenges to convince the audience with a particular point of view.

Choice C is incorrect because technical writing explains a complex topic with accuracy and is often high structured.

 

 




 
 

Example 2

 

Coming in January is the annual summer carnival and here is why you should attend. First, there are activities for all ages. This year, the activities including a fishpond game for younger children, beanbag toss for older children, and relay races for children and adults alike. Secondly, each activity provides prizes such as yo-yos, bug-eyed glasses, and light-up gifts. Winning a prize always adds excitement to any activity. The best part is the costume contest. It is funny to see how children can be creative through face painting, wigs, and costumes. Adults and children can laugh and have fun at the annual summer carnival. If you are looking for a lot of fun this weekend, attending this event is worth it.

What is the above passage writing style

  1. Narrative
  2. Persuasive
  3. Technical
  4. Expository

The correct answer is B. The author’s intent is to persuade the audience to attend the annual summer carnival. The topic is the annual summer carnival and the author gathers reasons why you should attend by (1) there are activities for everyone, (2) each activity has prizes, and (3) there is a costume contest.

Choice A Is incorrect because the author does not relay a story or describe a series of events.

Choice C is incorrect because the writing is addressing a summer carnival event and is not technical in nature.

Choice D is incorrect because the author does not simply provide information, they are persuading you with information on why you should attend the event.

Example 3

The most embarrassing moment of my college years was how I earned my nickname, Crash. It all started after school when I turned onto a busy street next to the school. First, I pulled up right behind a truck at a stop sign. After a second, a fellow classmate told me that I was really close and that I was going to hit the truck in front of me. At that moment, I was attempting to tell my passenger to get back in the car as they were hanging out the window. I was distracted and in a blink of an eye, I hit the truck in front of me. Immediately, I felt devastated. I was worried that I had damaged the truck, but all I did was scratch his bumper. When I turned around to look at my car, it was completely ruined. The hood had buckled, the front end was pushed back into the interior of the car, and the headlights were broken. I was humiliated and scared. During the rest of the semester, I was called Crash and reminding what happened that day.

What is the above passage writing style?

  1. Narrative
  2. Persuasive
  3. Technical
  4. Expository

The correct answer is A. The author portrays a topic followed by series of events. The topic in this passage is how the author received the nickname, Crash. The author then begins to explain what happened leading up to the nickname.

Choice B is incorrect because persuasive writing challenges to convince the audience with a particular point of view.

Choice C is incorrect because the writing is addressing a narrative story regarding the author’s nickname and is not technical in nature.

Choice D is incorrect because the author does not provide a topic and explain its features, they are providing a series of events around a topic.

UNDERSTANDING RHETORICAL INTENT

Rhetorical intent is closely related to the four categories of writing styles. Rhetorical intent can be defined by four categories: entertainment, expressive, informational, and persuasive.

  • Entertainment writingis intended to be provide entertainment.
  • Expressive writingassists to convey the author’s feelings or providing the audience with a certain feeling.
  • Informational writingis intended to give the audience information on a particular topic.
  • Persuasive writingis intended to convince the audience to accept a perspective or take action.

EXAMPLES OF RHETORICAL INTENT

Example 1

Attending college can be expensive. First, college tuition, room, and housing can cost between $2,000 to over $10,000 per semester. Additional expenses make attending college even more expensive. For example, textbooks can cost between $100 to $1,000 per semester. Second, materials can also become expensive. Paper, writing utensils, notebooks, and other supplies often cost more at the college bookstore than online or through retail store. For instance, a package of paper can cost $2 at a retail store versus $5 at a college bookstore. Lastly, there are all kinds of special fees added onto the bill during registration. A college attendee might have to pay $50 fee for college insurance fee, $20 fee for activity/school activity fee, $15 fee for the student government association, and $100 fee for parking. There are additional fees if the attendee decides to add or drop classes. The fees required can make college seem never ending.

Which of the following is the author’s intent in the passage?

  1. To entertain
  2. To express feelings
  3. To inform
  4. To persuade

The correct answer is C. The author’s intent is to inform the readers why college expenses are expensive.

Choice A is incorrect because the author does not engage the audience in an entertaining or captivating manner.

Choice B is incorrect because the author does not express feelings or attempt to bring out emotions in the audience.

Choice D is incorrect because the author does not make an argument or attempt to persuade he audience to believe in an idea or action.

Example 2

Coming in January is the annual summer carnival and here is why you should attend. First, there are activities for all ages. This year, the activities including a fishpond game for younger children, beanbag toss for older children, and relay races for children and adults alike. Secondly, each activity provides prizes such as yo-yos, bug-eyed glasses, and light-up gifts. Winning a prize always adds excitement to any activity. The best part is the costume contest. It is funny to see how children can be creative through face painting, wigs, and costumes. Adults and children can laugh and have fun at the annual summer carnival. If you are looking for a lot of fun this weekend, attending this event is worth it.

Which of the following is the author’s intent in the passage?

  1. To entertain
  2. To express feelings
  3. To inform
  4. To persuade

The correct answer is D. The author’s intent is to persuade the audience to attend the annual summer carnival. The topic is the annual summer carnival and the author gathers reasons why you should attend by (1) there are activities for everyone, (2) each activity has prizes, and (3) there is a costume contest.

Choice A is incorrect because the author does not engage the audience in an entertaining or captivating manner.

Choice B is incorrect because the author does not express feelings or attempt to bring out emotions in the audience.

Choice C is incorrect because the author does not provide information without also requesting a change in behavior.

 

 





 
 

 

UNDERSTANDING TEXT STRUCTURE

In addition to understanding both writing styles and rhetorical intentions, the ATI TEAS reading passage will reflect on five types of text structures: (1) cause-effect, (2) comparison-contrast, (3) description, (4) problem-solution, and (5) sequence.

  • Cause-effect text structuresexplain an outcome and result of a particular cause, or may show how one topic may effect an outcome
  • Comparison-contrast text structuresdiscusses the similarities and dissimilarities between two or more additional elements.
  • Description text structuresdescribes a topic or event in a general way.
  • Problem-solution text structuresestablishes a problem and provides a solution to that problem.
  • Sequence text structuresconveys ideas in order and describes steps in a process.

Example 1

Although, I raised Chubbi and Chewi from puppies, they have completely different personalities. Chubbi is a three year old, male, Maltese whereas Chewi is a three year old, male, Shih Tzu/Bichon mix. Chubbi is small and soft, unlike Chewi who has thick fur and is bigger. Chubbi is tremendously loyal and a little mean; however, Chewi is friendly to anyone he meets or sees. Give that they were both treated the same way all their life, it is hard to believe that they are so different in everything they do.

Which of the following structures is used in the above passage?

  1. Comparison-contrast
  2. Cause-effect
  3. Sequence
  4. Problem-solution

The correct answer is A. Comparison-contrast text structures highlight both similarities and differences among the two entities.

Choice B is incorrect because a cause-effect text structures focus on one factor and variable outcomes.

Choice C is incorrect because a sequence text structures designates steps in a process and/or presents information in a chronological form.

Choice D is incorrect because a problem-solution text structure contributes a problem and then delivers a solution.

Example 2

In the early 1800s, the United States needed room to grow. The problem was most people lived in the East. The cities were crowded, and new lands were expensive. Young families couldn’t afford to purchase farms. Then, as a solution, the United States government purchased land from France. The government acquired land from Mexico. Soon the country had stretched all the way to the Pacific Ocean. People looked into the setting sun with outstretched arms and said, “Go west!” Settlers road in wagons or on horses. Then, railroads were built that stretched from the East Cost almost to the West Coast. The railroads made travel faster bringing people into the new lands.

Which of the following structures is used in the above passage?

  1. Comparison-contrast
  2. Cause-effect
  3. Sequence
  4. Problem-solution

The correct answer is D. The text structure above provides a problem and then delivers a solution to that problem.

Choice A is incorrect because comparison-contrast text structures highlight two or more s

imilarities and difference among multiple entities.
Choice B is incorrect because a cause-effect text structures focus on one factor and variable outcomes.

Choice C is incorrect because a sequence text structures designates steps in a process and/or presents information in a chronological form.