ATI TEAS ENGLISH AND LANGUAGE USAGE REVIEW – PARTS OF SPEECH
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Questions related to parts of speech address the differences between subjects, verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, articles, and prepositions. You must identify these parts of speech in a sentence. These questions also test the difference between singular and plural nouns.
In the English language, we use different parts of speech to convey different types of information in sentence form. The parts of speech identify the role that a particular word or words play in a sentence. Essentially, parts of speech for sentence components.
UNDERSTANDING SUBJECTS AND VERBS
The most important sentence components are subjects and verbs.
- Subjects convey who or what is performing the action in a sentence.
- Verbs describe the action that is take place.
For example: Jason couldn’t keep a promise.
In this sentence, the subject of the sentence is Jason. The verb is couldn’t, a contraction for could not.
Consider this example: Heather’s brother couldn’t keep a promise.
In this sentence, the subject of the sentence is Heather’s brother. The verb is couldn’t.
Here is a slightly more complex example: Heather’s earnest little brother couldn’t keep a promise.
In this form of the sentence, the subject is Heather’s earnest little brother. The verb is still couldn’t, as in the previous two examples.
UNDERSTANDING NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
A noun is a person, place, or thing, and a pronoun is a word that refers to a noun.
For example: Stacy entered the room before she saw Harry.
This sentence contains three nouns: Stacy, the room, and Harry. The word she is a pronoun that refers to Stacy.
Nouns and pronouns often make up the subject of sentences, but they aren’t always the subjects. Sometimes a form of a verb may be the subject of the sentence.
For example: Laughing is contagious in our office.
In this example, the word laughing is a form of the verb to laugh. Laughing is the subject of the sentence, followed by the verb is.
Nouns can be singular or plural.
- A singular noun represents only one person, place, or thing.
- A plural noun represents more than one person, place, or thing being described.
Pronouns can also be singular or plural, depending on the noun they refer to.
For example: Laughing is contagious in our office, especially when we are listening to television.
In this example, office is a singular noun: it describes only one office. Television is also a singular noun, indicating one television. The pronoun we is plural. It indicates more than one person watching television.
UNDERSTANDING ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words. In grammatical parlance, we say that adjectives modify nouns, and adverbs modify verbs. That just means that adjectives describe nouns, and adverbs describe how the action of a verb is taking place.
Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs.
For example: The beach has massive waves.
In this sentence, the word massive is an adjective. It modifies the noun waves.
Another example: The beach’s massive waves immediately caused a scare.
In this sentence, the word massive is still an adjective modifying waves. The word immediately is an adverb, modifying the verb caused. Immediately is used to describe how the action of causing a scare took place.
CONJUNCTIONS, ARTICLES, AND PREPOSITIONS
Other important parts of speech to know are conjunctions, articles, and prepositions. These components are less central to the meaning of a sentence than are subjects and verbs, but they must be included in order to make the meaning understood. Conjunctions are connecting words. They join together the ideas in a sentence. Articles are identifiers; they let us know if a noun is specific or general. Finally, prepositions indicate relationship between components of a sentence, often showing the location or direction of action. Prepositions are commonly included as parts of prepositional phrases.
For example: The weather was cool and inviting.
In this sentence, the word and is a conjunction. It joins together cool and inviting.
Another example: Leonard decided to go shopping for a golf cart.
In this sentence, the word a is an article. It identifies the noun golf cart.
Last example: Haleigh went to the library.
In this sentence, the preposition is part of the prepositional phrase to the library. The phrase indicates where Haleigh went, showing the direction of her action.
An interjection is a word added to a sentence to show sudden or strong emotion. For example, the interjection might express surprise, joy, excitement, enthusiasm, pain, or disgust. It usually comes at the beginning of the sentence although there is no set rule.
For example: Hey, give me back my cookie!
In this sentence, the word hey is an interjection.
Another example: No, I will not give back your cookie.
Introductory words, such as yes, no, or well, are also considered interjection
ATI TEAS ENGLISH & LANGUAGE USAGE Parts of Speech
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